Centralised Payment Aggregators

Centralised payment, or handshake aggregators, have established intricate and large-scale cybersecurity practices to secure their networks, and spent decades building relationships with merchants and consumers to accumulate trust and increase their network size.

These are closed systems, where users are:

  1. Required to give up custody of their funds
  2. Limited to transferring value only to those within each payment network
  3. Limited in withdrawal value, if possible at all.